Population of the State which was 13.10 million in 1901 increased to 44.98 million in 1991. Male and Female population was 22.95 million and 22.02 million, respectively. Rural and Urban population was 31.07 and 13.90 million respectively. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes population, out of the total population, was 7.37 million and 1.92 million, respectively. Details on projected population from 1992 to 2025 is presented in Table-2.
LAND HOLDINGS: The average land holding was around 3.20 hectares in 1970 and this has declined to 1.63 hectare in 2005. According to the study on “Cost of Cultivation and Farm Income” by Prof. Abhijit Sen under the series “State of the Indian Farmer: A Millennium Study”, the average size of farms in many States is not adequate to meet the requirements implied by the rural poverty line. The study indicates that the required economic size for Karnataka State is 2.56 hectares.
Small and marginal holdings account for 75% of total holdings and operate only 36.5 of the total operated area, while semi, medium, medium and large holdings account for 25% of the total holdings their operation land holding percentage is 63.45 out of the total operated area.
Fragmentation of operational holdings has widened the base of the agrarian pyramid in most states. Empirical studies have, however, demonstrated that agricultural productivity is size neutral. Factors that determine productivity favourably include among others an easy and reliable access to modern inputs, access to suitable technology tailored for specific needs, the presence of support infrastructure and innovative marketing systems to aggregate and market the output from such small holdings efficiently and effectively. In agricultural technology, the use of high yielding varieties as in the case of Bt cotton and maize, economy in input use, the availability of quality seeds and farming techniques such as system of rice intensification enabled finally by marketing links all have high potential to improve yield. Table-3.
DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS:
As per 1991 Census, total number of workers in Karnataka was 172.92 lakhs, out of which cultivators accounted for 59.16 lakhs (35%) agricultural labourers accounted for 50.00 lakhs (29%) and other workers accounted for 63.76 lakhs (36%).